1. To validate existing assumptions of usability issues in our product.
2. To discover additional features we didn't have in the current product, which might be added to the next phase of the product.
Given the goals, a summative usability testing perfectly suits our goals. Since our participants were located in different cities/counties, and we had a limited budget, we planned to do a remote testing. Though it might not be as good as an in house usability testing, it would still help us get enough insights as a starting point for product improvement.
1.2 Task Flows
When designing the product, I built separate task flows for each feature in the product. And the assumptions came along with our design and internal testing process. Therefore, the task flows and assumptions were not well organized. To structure all the assumptions and align them with the task flow, I did a detailed cognitive walkthrough. I went through a typical route of a business user's, as well as one a data scientist would go through. The tasks for business users were mainly focused on creating a project, selecting a template, simple data handling, and simple modeling; while the tasks for data scientists included advanced variable settings, modeling settings, and detailed modeling results checking. When conducting each task, I asked myself 4 questions:
1. Will the user try to achieve the right effect?
2. Will the user notice that the correct action is available?
3. Will the user associate the correct action with the effect to be achieved?
4. If the correct action is performed, will the user see that progress is being made toward the solution of the task?
Figure 1: One task flow I did while doing the cognitive walkthrough.
1.3 Task table and rating system
The cognitive walkthrough helped me sort out the task flows, organized our assumptions into specific tasks, as well as defining one or more "happy path" of each task. The results are a well-organized table to support the note-taking during usability testing.
Table 1: Example of a task table to support usability testing.
With this table, we could easily compare what users do with the 'correct path', then to analyze if our previous assumptions are valid. What's more, as I could accurately spot where users have difficulty on the detailed task path, it points back to the specific part of the interface that we need to improve.
As Jakob Nielsen pointed out, "user success is the bottom line of the usability". The success rate is a simple and powerful tool to measure usability. It is defined as the percentage of user who successfully finished the task. Jakob Nielsen's success rate with partial success rating seems the best approach for us. There are two reasons
1. Our system is a quite complicated platform, so it's highly possible that users will not undertake a task exactly as the "happy path" we designed. Partial success will more accurately describe user actions.
2. Accurate descriptions of user actions will help us decide the severity of the issues.
I researched a bit and found Remote UX research and NNgroup has recommended a detailed list of remote UX tools. Then I ended up choosing Zoom meeting as it offers functions such as video conference, screen sharing. These functions are enough for remote communication during the test and enable me to observe participants' action on their screens. Video recording is for more detailed qualitative analysis afterward thus optional and remote control enables testers to help participants when they encounter technical errors. Zoom offers 45 minutes’ free video session for anyone, so participants can just join the remote meeting within a click. It's also good that they don’t have to register a zoom account.
After I’ve done all the preparations for the test, there is still one important thing left: email my participants ahead with the time schedule, brief of testing agenda, IT requirements and materials(sample data file) needed. I also make it clear in my email that it’s our product to be tested, not the participants.
2. Conducting the Test
2.1 Observation, probing, taking notes
The test we did were moderated tests, which meant I would join the online meeting at the same time with the participant, greeting him/her, watching him/her doing tasks and think aloud, taking notes and offering help. Moderated tests can gather more useful information because the facilitator got more contextual information. Observing participant’s facial expression and actions helped me understand if he/she is confused. At some point, I would also prob user further based on participant’s think aloud to understand “Why”. These qualitative data provides additional insights along the task completion rate and is of great help to improve the product.
For each test, I also invited one team member to join me. They can help answer some professional questions, or handle technical issues we might encounter during the test. It also helps my team members understand what problems users are facing by watching them interact with the product.
My colleague and I offered help when participants couldn’t finish the task or asked for help. When I found a participant doing an unexpected activity, I would ask why and let participants further explain his/her logic.
When participants had gone through all the tasks, I had a short discussion with them in regard to the whole process and thank them for the participation. Asking “Is there anything you want to mention that I didn’t cover?” was magically useful and helped me get valuable insights that we didn’t think of before.
3. Turning results into actionable insights
To gain a holistic understanding of the testing results, I summarized all the ratings into another table. Comparing the completion rate of each task from all 4 tests(5 participants among whom 2 did a test together), I marked tasks with less than 50% completion rate.
Table 2: Example of a task completion table to record the test result
Then I went back to my previous table of detailed tasks and checked my notes to understand at which specific step the participant failed, and why. The corresponding UI part would be where the improvements are needed.
Table 3: Going back to the previous table.
4. Reflections and Takeaways
Since I had gone through the process a lot of times, both in the cognitive walkthrough and the pilot test by myself, I am very familiar with the two different routes and each task users would do in testings. This helped me easily find problematic areas while watching users use the product. Also, being specific to each step in a single task enable us to summarize the results quickly and turn them into improvements suggestions.
Still, there are several things I wish I could do better next time. When I chose the dataset and design scenarios, I just chose one that was available and easy to understand. However, our data scientist later pointed out that it was not a usual prediction case for both business people and data scientist in the business world. It’s better to use a more common case to resemble a real situation. Also, inform participants about the technical specification earlier is very important to avoid unexpected situations. It’s good to invite colleagues to join the testing, but not too many at one time. Too many testers with one participant would possibly make the participant feel stressful. Then we might not get many useful insights from this testing as we could have. Finally, when the testing went for a very long time, it’s less possible to get useful information as participants got fatigue.
4.2 Some takeaways
This is the first time I did remote usability testings. It’s similar to traditional usability testings but still, a bit different, below are things that I would pay more attention when I would do a remote usability testing next time:
• A cognitive walkthrough is helpful in structuring task flows and identifying possible issues.
• Depending on your goal, choose reasonable rating criteria.
• Be specific about the technical requirement(Browsers, OS, etc.) and let your participants know it ahead.
• Be courtesy and don’t let the meeting last too long (Ideally 45 - 60 min, no longer than one hour)
• It’s very important to go through the whole process by yourself and with your colleagues several times before the real testing.
• Invite your colleagues to join the testing is beneficial, but not too many at once.
That’s much from my first remote usability testing. I’d love to hear your experience doing remote usability testing. And you are more than welcome to discuss any related question with me.